Third Year

NoIMG
مادة الاستماع والتعبير الشفوي (ف1) E:  فقرة drills on speaking and listening محذوفة وغير مطلوبة للامتحان .
-lecture 7 tongue twisters .
-Differences according to class.
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مادة نصوص أدبية 1 (ف1) :١٠ محاضرات

المطلوب للمادة
من صفحة ٧ إلى صفحة ٧١ بالإضافة للfigures of speech يلي بنهاية الكتاب صفحة ١٢٩.
المحذوف:
٤٤ ل ٤٦
٥١ ل ٥٥
٦١ ل ٦٧

القصائد المطلوبة للترجمة:
سونيت ١٨
To althea from prison المقطع الأول والرابع
وطلبت song to celia
زيديني عشقا
فكر بغيرك
أعطني الناي وغني

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مادة مصطلحات علمية ( ف1 ) : 
١٠ أسئلة من ٤٠ سؤال ستكون من النصوص المأخوذة ضمن الفصل والباقي لنصوص مشابهة.

النص الأول

Cesarean section has been part of human culture since ancient times and there are tales in both Western and non-Western cultures of this procedure resulting in live mothers and offspring. Yet, the early history of cesarean section remains shrouded in myth and is of dubious accuracy. Even the origin of "cesarean" has apparently been distorted over time. It is commonly believed to be derived from the surgical birth of Julius Caesar, however this seems unlikely since his mother Aurelia is reputed to have lived to hear of her son's invasion of Britain.


النص الثاني

Currently, more than 73 per cent of Canada’s population have received at least one dose of vaccine, and the country’s response to COVID-19 continues to be a top priority for voters. This is likely why current public health efforts have concentrated on expanding vaccine access and implementing communication strategies (like motivational interviewing) to increase vaccination rates.But, as seen through recent anti-vax protests, especially those targeting schools and hospitals, there is a worrisome convergence of the anti-vaccine movement and far-right political extremism.

النص الثالث

اضطراب فرط الحركة وتشتت الانتباه هو أحد اضطرابات النمو العصبية يحدث في مرحلة الطفولة، ويستمر حتى مرحلة البلوغ ومرحلة الرشد بأشكال وأعراض مختلفة.كما انه أحد اضطرابات النمو العصبية و الذي ينتج عن نقص في كمية الموصلات الكيميائية (الدوبامين، النورأدرينالين) في قشرة الجزء الأمامي (الفص الجبهي) التي تسهل للخلايا تنفيذ عملها والتواصل بين أطراف الدماغ.لا يوجد أسباب واضحة ودقيقة حول سبب حدوث الاضطراب؛ ولكن يوجد بعض الدراسات التي أثبتت ارتباط الاضطراب ببعض العوامل (مثل: التاريخ العائلي، التعرض للسموم، التعرض لإصابات أثناء الحمل أو الولادة أو الشهور الأولى بعد الولادة).لا يوجد تحليل لتشخيص الاضطراب؛ ولذلك فإن التشخيص يتم بتقييم شامل للحالة على يد طبيب مختص بتشخيص الاضطراب عن طريق الفحص السريري؛ لاستبعاد كافة الاحتمالات الأخرى التي قد تسبب نفس أعراض الاضطراب وجمع المعلومات كالتاريخ المرضي والعائلي للشخص، ومطابقة معلومات الحالة بمعايير التشخيص

النص الرابع

There are thousands of stars visible to us from Earth, particularly if we do our observing in a really dark sky viewing area). However, in the Milky Way alone, there are hundreds of millions of them, not all visible to people on Earth. The Millky Way is not only home to all those stars, it contains "stellar nurseries" where newborn stars are being hatched in clouds of gas and dust.
All stars are very, very far away, except for the Sun. The rest are outside of our solar system. The closest one to us is called Proxima Centauri, and it lies 4.2 light-years away.
Most stargazers who have observed for a while start to notice that some stars are brighter than others. Many also seem to have a faint color. Some look blue, others white, and still others faint yellow or reddish hues. There are many different types of stars in the universe.
We bask in the light of a star — the Sun. It's different from the planets, which are very small in comparison to the Sun, and are usually made of rock (such as Earth and Mars) or cool gases (such as Jupiter and Saturn). By understanding how the Sun works, astronomers can gain a deeper insight into how all stars work. Conversely, if they study many other stars throughout their lives, it's possible to figure out the future of our own star, too.
النص الخامس

There are many ways to make a vaccine the most common of which is when viruses are weakened so they reproduce very poorly once inside the body. The vaccines for measles and influenza vaccines are made this way. Viruses usually cause disease by reproducing themselves many times in the body. Whereas natural viruses reproduce thousands of times during an infection, vaccine viruses usually reproduce fewer than 20 times. Because vaccine viruses don't reproduce very much, they don't cause disease, but vaccine viruses replicate well enough to induce cells that protect against infection in the future.
The advantage of live, "weakened" vaccines is that one or two doses provide immunity that is usually life-long. The limitation of this approach is that these vaccines usually cannot be given to people with weakened immune systems (like people with cancer or AIDS)
In another strategy viruses are completely inactivated (or killed) with a chemical. By killing the virus, it cannot possibly reproduce itself or cause disease. The inactivated polio vaccine was made this way.

النص السادس

Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory
Bronfenbrenner was critical of previous theories of child development. He argued that studies of children in unfamiliar laboratory environments with one other person, usually a stranger, were ecologically invalid.
He that claimed most earlier studies were ‘unidirectional’, meaning that the laboratory studies observed the influence of A on B (e.g. a stranger/mother with a child), rather than looking at the possible influence of the child on the stranger/mother, or any other third party’s influence.
Bronfenbrenner maintained that these laboratory features of research are not characteristic of environments that children actually live and develop in.
The microsystem is the first level of Bronfenbrenner's theory, and are the things that have direct contact with the child in their immediate environment, such as parents, siblings, teachers and school peers.
Relationships in a microsystem are bi-directional, meaning the child can be influenced by other people in their environment and is also capable of changing the beliefs and actions of other people too.
The mesosystem encompasses the interactions between the child’s microsystems, such as the interactions between the child’s parents and teachers, or between school peers and siblings.
the exosystem is a component of the ecological systems theory developed by Bronfenbrenner in the 1970s. It incorporates other formal and informal social structures, which do not themselves contain the child, but indirectly influence them as they affect one of the microsystems.
Examples of exosystems include the neighborhood, parent’s workplaces, parent’s friends and the mass media. These are environments in which the child is not involved, and are external to their experience, but nonetheless affects them anyway.
The macrosystem is a component of Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory that focuses on how cultural elements affect a child's development, such as socioeconomic status, wealth, poverty, and ethnicity.
Thus, culture that individuals are immersed within may influence their beliefs and perceptions about events that transpire in life.
The fifth and final level of Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory is known as the chronosystem.
This system consists of all of the environmental changes that occur over the lifetime which influence development, including major
life transitions, and historical events.

النص السابع

From its origins to its significance, almost every popular notion about the famous Fibonacci sequence is wrong
The Fibonacci sequence is a series of numbers in which each number is the sum of the two that precede it. Starting at 0 and 1, the sequence looks like this: 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, and so on forever. The Fibonacci sequence can be described using a mathematical equation: Xn+2= Xn+1 + Xn
People claim there are many special properties about the numerical sequence, such as the fact that it is “nature’s secret code” for building perfect structures, like the Great Pyramid at Giza or the iconic seashell that likely graced the cover of your school mathematics textbook. But much of that is incorrect and the true history of the series is a bit more down-to-earth.

النص الثامن

The immune system attacks germs and helps keep us healthy.
When the body senses foreign substances (called antigens), the immune system works to recognize the antigens and get rid of them.
B lymphocytes are triggered to make antibodies (also called immunoglobulins). These proteins lock onto specific antigens. After they're made, antibodies usually stay in our bodies in case we have to fight the same germ again. That's why someone who gets sick with a disease, like chickenpox, usually won't get sick from it again.
This is also how immunizations (vaccines) prevent some diseases. An immunization introduces the body to an antigen in a way that doesn't make someone sick. But it does let the body make antibodies that will protect the person from future attack by the germ.
Although antibodies can recognize an antigen and lock onto it, they can't destroy it without help. That's the job of the T cells. They destroy antigens tagged by antibodies or cells that are infected or somehow changed
النص التاسع

The golden blood type or Rh null blood group contains no Rh antigens (proteins) on the red blood cells (RBCs). This is the rarest blood group in the world, with less than 50 individuals having this blood group. It was first seen in Aboriginal Australians.
The worry with the golden blood group is that the donations of Rh null are incredibly scarce and difficult to obtain. An Rh null person has to rely on the cooperation of a small network of regular Rh null donors around the world if they need the blood. Across the globe, there are only nine active donors for this blood group. This makes it the world’s most precious blood type, hence the name "golden" blood.
Our red blood cells have proteins called antigens on their surface. Depending on the antigen present, we have A, B, O, or AB blood type
The golden blood group seems to be a result of genetic mutation (spontaneous change in a gene


النص العاشر

اعتمدت التطعيمات البشرية الأولى على استخدام فيروسات أضعف أو مخففة لتوليد المناعة. استخدم لقاح الجدري جدري البقر، وهو فيروس جدري مشابه بدرجة كافية للجدري للحماية منه ولكن عموما لا يسبب مرضاً خطيراً. كان السعار هو أول فيروس موهن في المختبر لإنشاء لقاح للبشر.
تصنع اللقاحات باستخدام العديد من العمليات المختلفة. قد تحتوي على فيروسات حية مُليَّنة (أوهنت أو غُيِّرت حتى لا تسبب المرض)؛ الكائنات الحية أو الفيروسات المعطلة أو المقتولة؛ السموم المعطلة (للأمراض البكتيرية حيث السموم المتولدة من البكتيريا، وليس البكتيريا نفسها، تسبب المرض)؛ أو مجرد أجزاء من العوامل المسببة للأمراض (هذا يشمل كلًا من اللقاحات الفرعية والمتقارنة).

النص الحادي عشر

اضطراب طيف التوحد عبارة عن حالة ترتبط بنمو الدماغ و تؤثر على كيفية تمييز الشخص للآخرين والتعامل معهم على المستوى الاجتماعي مما يتسبب في حدوث مشكلات في التواصل والتفاعل الاجتماعي كما يتضمن الاضطراب أنماطاً محدودة ومتكررة من السلوك . ويشير مصطلح الطيف إلى مجموعة كبيرة من الأعراض ومستويات الشدة.
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